Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Chapter 20 – Neurofinance

20. 1 INTRODUCTION In this book we have argued that cognition and emotion are powerful influences on people’s decisions. Traders are, of course, no different. This chapter begins by considering what we know about what sets a successful trader apart from other people. We have all contemplated the oft-debated question of nature versus nurture in explaining whether a person thrives or fails. In this final chapter, we further investigate where choices come from. The evidence suggests that there are both environmental and biological foundations. The chapter begins in Section 20. with a discussion of expertise, namely, what makes a skillful trader? Cognitive skills are honed through practice and repetition, but emotion also has a significant role. Next, in Section 20. 3, we turn to the emerging field of neurofinance. Using imaging technology, researchers are contributing to our understanding of how people make decisions. In Section 20. 4, we describe some of the insights recently pr ovided by neurofinance researchers. These researchers have found that cognition and emotion have complementary effects. Traders whose emotions appear to be in balance perform the best.Uncertainty and risk are experienced differently by our brains, as are gains versus losses and risk versus return. The chapter concludes in Section 20. 5 with some practical advice. 20. 2 EXPERTISE AND IMPLICIT LEARNING Consider the following situation. You are at a large concert and run into a good friend, Molly. Of course, you recognize her face immediately. Now think about this. What if, instead, you know Molly is at the concert but is seated across the venue. The friend you came to the concert with, Amy, is going to look for Molly, but the two have never met.You do your best at describing Molly to Amy. What’s the chance that Amy will be able to identify Molly among thousands of concert goers? Not too likely. Much of what we know we cannot describe in words. A face is a very complex thing, an d we simply do not have enough words to explicitly describe one particular person very accurately. Language is categorical, whereas the distinguishing features of two similar faces may be fuzzy. Some cognitive scientists assert that people have knowledge that they cannot verbalize, referred to as implicit learning or tacit knowledge.Brett Steenbarger argues that traders also have information about markets that they cannot adequately describe in words. Like a human face, markets are probably more complex than the language we have to describe them. Does this mean we need a finer grid with which to describe markets? Or, does this view suggest that we need to better understand how traders make decisions? Excellence in most fields requires expertise. How do we define expertise? Usually we think in terms of relative performance so that those at the top of their game are considered to be the experts.Because of tacit knowledge, an expert chess player or pro football player often knows insti nctively what the best move is, perhaps without any cognitive evaluation whatsoever. Recall in our discussion of the foundations of emotion in Chapter 7 that psychologists believe that emotions can develop completely independently from cognition. In other words, you can feel fear without first cognitively recognizing what is making you fearful. While observing a market, a trader may instinctively know the move he wants to make.Steenbarger notes that in many instances traders will make similar buy or sell decisions and then, ex post, provide very different descriptions of the information that led to the decision. The traders saw the same information, acted the same way, but understood their behavior quite differently. Perhaps a trader makes a decision based on instinct with no preceding cognitive evaluation. Afterward, the trader generates an explanation that is cognitively consistent with his expectations. Steenbarger argues that â€Å"the successful trader feels the market but doe s not become lost in those feelings. Studies of expert athletic performers have reached similar conclusions. For example, one study argues that â€Å"emotions, and the capability to regulate them effectively, arguably account for a large portion of the variance in athletic performance. † In the trading domain, an expert trader often has a gut feeling about a particular situation but remains in control by taking careful, deliberate action. Does this mean that trading expertise is innate and cannot be learned? Reading the information in a market could be like understanding a social interaction. Some people are just better at it than others.While some level of innate ability is probably requisite, the evidence suggests that expertise is finely honed. Not too many of us would believe that a professional quarterback spent his teen and early adult years watching football on television while sitting on the couch eating chips. Knowing the rules of a game does not make you good at the game. Practice and repetition are common ingredients across successful experts. For example, accomplished violinists spend, on average, 10,000 hours practicing. Successful traders also devote a lot of time to practice.This practice gives them the ability to connect what they know about a market to the action they should take. Through implicit learning they are able to make better and more efficient decisions. A day trader who spends hours, or even minutes, evaluating a current market circumstance before making a trading decision will certainly find it difficult to succeed. 20. 3 NEUROFINANCE While we know that practice is necessary to hone any skill, unlocking the mysteries of the brain is an important key to understanding how to promote the development of expertise in any realm, including investing.Are evolutionary theorists correct in their contention that our basic emotions have evolved to promote the survival of the species as we discussed in Chapter 7? Do expert performers hav e innate characteristics, or can anyone develop expertise in trading? Neurofinance and neuroeconomics use neurotechnology to examine how the brain behaves while a person is making financial and economic decisions. In these new and growing fields, results from economics, finance, psychology, and neuroscience provide the basis for further investigation.Neuroscience uses brain imaging, as we described in Chapter 7, to understand brain activity and how the brain works. With this technology, scientists can actually measure emotional response. The potential of the technology has not gone unnoticed by practitioners. In fact, Jason Zweig, senior writer for Money magazine and guest columnist for Time magazine and cnn. com writes: I’ve been a financial journalist since 1987, and nothing I’ve ever learned about investing has excited me more than the spectacular findings emerging form the study of â€Å"neuroeconomics. Thanks to this newborn field †¦ we can begin to understa nd what drives investing behavior not only on the theoretical or practical level, but as a basic biological function. These flashes of fundamental insight will enable you to see as never before what makes you tick as an investor. Investors who better understand â€Å"what makes them tick† will be better prepared to make good investment decisions. It is important to understand that neuroscience is not simply interested in mapping out parts of the brain. Instead, by looking at how the brain reacts during various activities, scientists can understand how the brain functions and solves problems.We will better understand the mix of cognitive processing and emotional responses. Which responses are controlled and which are automatic responses? These insights will allow economic theorists to improve models of decision-making, as well as investor education efforts. Recall from our earlier discussion of the brain that automatic and controlled responses are associated with different par ts of the brain. Automatic responses often stimulate the amygdala, whereas controlled responses activate the forebrain (or prefrontal cortex). Using imaging technology, scientists can observe the areas of the brain that are activated during a task.In Chapter 7 we also talked about Damasio’s studies of the behavior of brain-damaged patients. The patients were emotionally flat due to frontal brain lobe damage, and Damasio concluded that decision-making and emotion are intertwined. Though studies of braindamaged patients can be informative, brain imaging technology allows more control so that research can be conducted with greater precision. Neuroscientists are making great progress on brain function, and, as a result, researchers are proposing new models and theories that better incorporate aspects of psychology, including emotion. 0. 4 INSIGHTS FROM NEUROFINANCE Neuroscientists have investigated a variety of questions related to financial decision-making. Several studies have lent insight into the forces of emotion on trading by studying the physiological characteristics of professional securities traders while they were actively engaged in live trading. In one study significant correlations between market movements and physiological characteristics such as skin conductance and cardiovascular data were reported. Differences were also detected across traders, perhaps related to trading experience.Another study looked at whether emotion was found to be an important determinant of a trader’s ability to succeed in financial markets. It was found that those whose reaction to gains and losses was most intense had the worst trading performance, suggesting the obvious need for balanced emotions. Brain imaging has been used as experimental participants have made risky choices. This research indicates that how gains and losses are both anticipated and realized is likely to differ inasmuch as different regions of the brain are activated.When gains are antici pated, a subcortical region known as the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) becomes active. This region is rich in dopamine, a substance that has been associated with both the positive affect of monetary rewards and addictive drug use. The fact that this region is only active during anticipated gains (but not losses) lends plausibility to the differential experiencing of gains and losses in prospect theory. Other brain imaging research indicates that what might lie behind ambiguity aversion is the fact that risk and uncertainty are experienced in different ways.Recall in Chapter 1 where we discussed the distinction between risk and uncertainty. With a risky choice, the person can assess the probability of the outcomes, but under uncertainty the probabilities are unknown. The distinction is important here because the brain may evaluate a choice in a risky situation differently from a choice when one faces uncertainty. Research indicates that when facing uncertainty the most active regions were the orbitofrontal cortex (a region integrating emotion and cognition) and the amygdala (a region central to emotional reaction).In contrast, when facing risk, the brain areas that responded during their task were typically in the parietal lobes so that the researchers concluded that choices in this setting were driven by cognitive factors. In sum, uncertainty appears to be more strongly associated with an emotional response, while risk leads to a cognitive reaction. It has been suggested that when times becomes more uncertain (for example in 2008, as was described in Chapter 14), the inability of investors to properly assess the distribution of future returns leads to their moving from rational deliberation to a primarily emotional response.The result could be widespread unwillingness to hold risky assets in turbulent markets, a tendency that can only exacerbate market declines. A neural test of myopic loss aversion has also been conducted. A group of patients with brain lesions on areas known to be associated with the processing of emotions were compared to a control group. The former group was significantly more likely to take on risk than the control group. Further, the lesion group exhibited greater consistency in their levels of risk aversion. In other words, those with a reduced capacity for fearful responses behaved in a manner more in line with expected utility theory.Another study focused on how decision-makers’ brains reacted to varying levels of risk, rather than on learning or expected values. Using a gambling game, expected values and risk were varied while participants’ brain activation was monitored. As is typical in finance, rewards were measured using expected payoffs and risk using the variance of payoffs. Interestingly, the researchers report that brain activation varied in both time and location for reward and risk. Brain activation in response to rewards was immediate, whereas brain activation in response to risk was delayed .Time and location of activation is important because if we can separate the effects of risk and reward in the brain, researchers can further investigate how changes in risk perception affect decision-making. For example, they could examine how misperception of risk and cognitive difficulties contribute to less-than-optimal behavior. 20. 5 EXPERTISE AND EMOTION Research indicates that understanding neural responses will help us to gain insight into some of the puzzles we have talked about in this book. In addition, there are important implications for trader education.We are all familiar with the old adage that â€Å"practice makes perfect. † In order to gain expertise, it is important to know the rules of the game, so reading up on investing is not a bad idea. But, at the same time, much practice through many simulations under divergent market conditions will promote better decision-making while trading. But, does it pay to become an expert? While we know that many long hour s of studying and practice are required, is this effort sufficiently rewarded? There is evidence that this question can be answered in the affirmative for financial practitioners.One researcher constructed a â€Å"differential reward index† as the income for a specified percentile divided by the median income for each occupation. This measure allows us to differentiate high average income from high income for those whose expertise is greatest in a particular profession. For financial and business advisors, including stock brokers, earnings are related closely to achievement. At the 90th percentile the differential reward index was 3. 5, indicating that the top 10% earned 3. 5 times more than the median income level.In fact, this was the largest observed value for the differential reward index across all occupations studied! Thus the evidence suggests that the benefit of becoming a skilled financial advisor may far exceed the cost. So how can one become an expert? Researchers have concluded that tacit knowledge is an important predictor of success in business as measured by salary, rank, and the level of one’s company (e. g. , whether it is among the top 500 in the Fortune rankings). Practical knowledge, or the ability to gain tacit knowledge and turn it into a good strategy, is a function of a person’s environment and ability.Thus, with a certain level of competence, hard work can be translated into success. A successful trader, nonetheless, should always remember that emotion is critical to the outcome. We have argued throughout this book that emotion can enhance decision-making. Previously cited evidence suggested, however, that traders are advised to be wary of intense emotional reactions. Another recent study used neuroimaging to examine how decision-makers’ brains responded while playing the ultimatum game described in Chapter 11.When unfair offers were rejected by the responders, the investigators reported significant increase s in brain activity in the anterior insula, a brain area associated with emotion. Recall that even offers that are viewed as unfair should be accepted by a responder who cares only about increasing her earnings. Thus, traders are advised to exert their cognitive skills when experiencing a strong emotional reaction in order to overcome the tendency to react emotionally, just as a responder in the ultimatum game who is aware of his emotional response is well advised to accept an offer even if it seems unfair.Emotional responses and cognitive evaluations of risk can be quite different. Think about how many people perceive the risks of automobile and airplane accidents. Though riding in an automobile has been shown to be the less safe alternative, often an emotional response plays the dominant role, which may keep some people off airplanes. CHAPTER HIGHLIGHTS 1. Expertise is defined in terms of relative performance so that those at the top of their game are considered to be the experts. 2. Implicit learning reflects knowledge that cannot be described using language. 3.Experts have developed implicit knowledge that enhances performance in their particular domain. 4. Neurofinance uses brain imaging technology and results from economics, finance, and psychology to better understand how the brain works. 5. Physiological differences exist across professional traders, and emotion is an important determinant of a trader’s ability. 6. Measured brain responses to changes in risk and reward vary in both location and time of activation. 7. Practice is necessary to excel in trading, and good traders may make decisions based on gut feelings, while at the same time ensuring that they control their emotional responses.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Land law Free Essay Example, 2250 words

British Airways Board [1982] Q. B. 1004, 1019E which stated that the principle applies when there is a dispute as to whether the object in dispute is found in or not attached to the land in question. Further, the owner of land usually has better title to an article found in or attached to the land than the finder, unless he or she has the permission to remove it or is a stranger. In Waverley Borough Council v Fletcher [1995] 4 All ER 756, the court held that the possession of land carries with it the possession of everything that is attached to it or under it and in the absence of any other better title, the right to own it too. It therefore makes no difference, it is not an important factor that the person who owns the land did not know that the article or object existed on the piece of land, or whether it is attached or unattached. Similarly in Bridges v Hawkesworth (1851) 21 LJ QB 75, the court stated the true legal position with regard to things attached to land and the exercise of control over the land as the factors to be considered in conferring titles to finders. Â   Treasure Trove at Common Law Under the Common Law, the Crown exercises its prerogative right to any treasure that has been found, and includes the rules relating to finders and keepers (Macmillan, 1996, p. We will write a custom essay sample on Land law or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now 1346). The three requirements for treasure trove at Common Law include the fact that it must be a gold or silver coin, plate or bullion and must have been deposited in the antique times and the depositor must have intended to return or retrieve it in a principle known as animus revertendi. It also includes the fact that the depositor must be unknown or that no other person can prove title to the property or presenting evidence of ownership as claimed by a person. The finders of the property usually report to the Coroner who holds an inquest and only applies on things of antiquarian value or interest that have been found in England and Wales found before September 24, 1997. Treasure Trove under Statute The Treasure Act 1996 redefines treasures in order to protect antiquities, determine the treasures in a simple manner and creates offences for failing to declare a treasure (Bray, Turner and Martin 2010, p. 21). The Act describes treasure as any object that is more than three hundred years old or a coin that is at least three hundred years old and has a content of about 10 % silver or gold or that 10 % of its metallic weight is silver or gold. It would also include treasure under the Common Law, archeologically associated materials and all the treasures will vest in the Crown unless a third party is granted the right to the treasure and transferred to a museum.

Monday, December 30, 2019

Bob the Builder - 1101 Words

Module 25 Practice Set 1 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Assets Liabilities Reserves $20,000 Deposits _________ Loans _______ Table 25-1: Balance Sheet ____ 1. Use Table 25-1. If the reserve ratio is 25%, loans are: A. $5,000. B. $15,000. C. $60,000. D. $80,000. E. $20,000. ____ 2. Banks are illiquid because: A. their deposits are less liquid than their loans. B. their loans are less liquid than their deposits. C. their assets are greater than their liabilities. D. their liabilities are greater than their assets. E. their assets are equal to their liabilities. Assets Liabilities Cash†¦show more content†¦decrease by $4,500 D. decrease by $5,000 E. decrease by $2,500 ____ 19. When banks extend loANS: A. the money supply decreases. B. the money supply increases. C. the money supply is unaffected since no new money was printed. D. they do so with their required reserves. E. the money multiplier rises. ____ 20. Holding everything else constant, if the required reserve ratio falls, then: A. the money multiplier increases. B. a $1 loan can lead to a smaller change in the money supply than before the change in the required reserve ratio. C. the amount of excess reserves falls also. D. the money multiplier decreases. E. the money supply will decrease. Module 25 Practice Set 1 Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: M REF: Module 25 SKL: Critical Thinking 2. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: M REF: Module 25 SKL: Critical Thinking 3. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: M REF: Module 25 SKL: Critical Thinking 4. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: M REF: Module 25 SKL: Critical Thinking 5. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: Module 25 SKL: Definitional 6. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: M REF: Module 25 SKL: Critical Thinking 7. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: Module 25 SKL: Critical Thinking 8. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: D REF: Module 25 SKL: Analytical Thinking 9. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: D REF: Module 25 SKL: Analytical Thinking 10. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: M REF: Module 25 SKL: Critical Thinking 11. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: E REF: Module 25Show MoreRelatedBob The Builder Decorating Ideas : Carpeting Or Laminate?1892 Words   |  8 Pagesconsiders Bob, Wendy, Scoop and Spud as personal friends, then he will surely love a fun Bob The Builder themed bedroom. Bob The Builder is one of the most popular animated children s television programs today. Together with Wendy and his construction crew of busy and helpful machines, Bob takes on many building projects while teaching some very important lessons along the way. This decorating article will offer tips and suggestions on how you can give your son a fun and comfortable Bob The Builder themedRead MoreAnalysis Of Harper Lee s Kill A Mocking Bird 1271 Words   |  6 Pagesoutside the community, there is another character, if not more, who act as community builders. The conflict between Bob Ewell and Atticus, Calpurnia, and even women and children in general, all demonstrate how the matter of prejudice and racism was one of stark divi sion at the time. While many characters demonstrate prejudice in the novel, Calpurnia is a significant example of someone who acted as a community builder. When she took Jem and Scout to the black church, on the outskirts of Maycomb, sheRead MoreHow Television Can Aid Children in Learning Essay910 Words   |  4 Pagesthey offer homework help, step by step instructions on math problems, and virtual labs for science. Shows like â€Å"Dora the Explorer†, â€Å"Bob the Builder†, and â€Å"Sesame Street† show children cultures and help teach morals. In â€Å"Bob the Builder† they teach children positive thinking, how to solve a problem, and how to work as a team (Bob the Builder, webpage, About Bob). The main character on â€Å"Dora the Explorer† is a seven year old Latina girl takes preschool children on adventures. 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Thus, I conclude that Jack makes an invitation to treat to three parties: Bob, Ken and Andy. ‘An invitation to treat is an expression of willingness to embark on negotiations with the other party to see whether the agreement can be reached further down the path. Thus, Jack is not making an offer; the offer is made by he personRead MoreCase 38 : A Solution For Adverse Impact937 Words   |  4 Pageswas stated to be discriminatory against woman and minorities by a number of the applicants. The personnel specialists who manages this department must go through the company’s formula to comprehend where the problem is occurring. P er the case study, â€Å"Bob Santos was a personnel specialist for the agency and had been employed with the staffing division for almost three years† (Nkomo, Fottler McAfee. 2011, p. 118). 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They were the first to introduce Turf Builder and they began spreader business with drop spreaders (Scotts Miracle-Gro). The company started expanding with mail order distribution channel, then to retail channel distribution. Miracle-Gro was founded in 1951, where all productions were outsourced

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Psycho-Social Reflection - 1884 Words

Bio-Psycho-Social Reflection Paper Ashley Wilson-Dixon University of Southern California Sergio Rizzo-Fontanesi, Ph.D. SOWK 506 August 31, 2017 Bio-Psycho-Social Reflection Paper As we go through life we may not realize the impact our health, mindset, and relationships have on our overall wellbeing. It is important to fully tend to and take care of our biological, psychological, and social parts of life. Throughout my paper I will be reflecting on my life and describing myself through the lens of the bio-psycho-social model to illustrate how these three broad categories work together to impact the whole body. I will then describe one core value of the National Association of Social Work and describe its importance to†¦show more content†¦For example, two years ago I went into a depression because I was overwhelmed with many different emotions and I didn’t have anyone to talk to about them. I also experienced prolonged moments of random sadness when I was around families. The U.S. Department of Health Human Services knows that trauma can affect one’s biological framework; with that, the U.S. Department of Health Human Services reminds us that some trauma survivors find creative, healthy, and innovative ways to cope with the effects of trauma (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2014). For example, through commitment to physical activity or by creating an organization to support survivors of a particular trauma. Because of my extensive history in foster care and dealing with trauma, I have learned the importance a healthy lifestyle has on my physiological well-being. I’ve learned that emotions affect health. Because my body responds to the way I think, feel, and act, it is important to live a healthy lifestyle. For example, I was not able to understand what was causing the sadness in my life, now through journaling I am able to reflect on my emotions and express my feelings of sadness and/or anger in a more appropriate way. 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This article identifies dysfunctional homes that foster improper parenting and the impact of psychological and physical absence of parents on their children. It also assesses the consequences of â€Å"child shifting† on affected children. The social impairments of children suffering from â€Å"child shifting† were cross-examined with the various parenting styles they would receive through continuous domestic relocation. â€Å"Children Caught in the Crossfire† is an interesting article that exploitsRead MoreTransformative Learning Theory : The Importance Of Planetary Consciousness Essay1641 Words   |  7 Pagesrealization, reflection, discourse, and active pursuit of change. This process requires significant effort for the individual and requires deep critical reflection into personal belief systems, inflicted views from childhood, and questioning knowledge. The presented literature explores the origins of transformative learning theory, the importance of a strong planetary context, and further examples of the application of this theory. Keywords: transformative learning theory, reflection, self-reflection, symbolsRead MoreForeign Policy - Actors, Theories, Cases1453 Words   |  6 Pagesgroups. * Classical FPA scholarship (1954-1993): Two generations of FPA * 1st generation (1954-1973) – work produced that created FPA * 2nd generation (1974-1993) – work produced that built on foundations created during 1st gen; self-reflection and criticism during this period revealed inconsistencies in CFP (big decline in popularity until late ‘80s) * FPA tried to create middle-range theories; theories that weren’t general accounts of all FP behavior but where instead accounts ofRead MoreHorror Films in Popular Culture Essay851 Words   |  4 Pagesfears of the times. These societal fears can be described as the ‘Horrors.’ In the 1960’s, the horror of personality was shown the cult classic Psycho (1960). Norman Bates is the unassuming antagonist, caring for his mother (Derry 164). Psycho was different in that â€Å"traditionally, acts of horror took place in old dark houses with lots of shadows; although psycho presents a dark house, the most horrible act takes place in the whiteness of a shower stall† (Derry 164). This movie made horror not specificRead MoreNursing Theory1224 Words   |  5 PagesAdaptation model is that the person is a bio-psycho-social being who is in constant interaction with a changing environment. Despite being considered a complex model, it has been used widely and s everal research studies have highlighted its importance and effectiveness in health care settings. 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Friday, December 13, 2019

The Problem and Its Settings Free Essays

Chapter I: The Problem and its Settings â€Å"You do anything long enough to escape the habit of living until the escape becomes the habit. † ~ David Ryan Introduction Internet and online game addiction, sometimes referred to as cyberspace addiction or online addiction, can manifest itself in many ways in today’s teens. If your daughter/son/sister/brother just spent an entire beautiful weekend updating his/her page on Facebook, playing online games on Y8, playing Vice City, battling on WarCraft foregoing a trip with the family to an amusement park or mall, he/she may be showing signs of addiction. We will write a custom essay sample on The Problem and Its Settings or any similar topic only for you Order Now The Internet is a seductive place, especially for today’s linked-in teens who are far more likely to add graffiti to their friend’s Facebook wall than they are to actually get on their bicycle and ride over to that same friend’s house. You have to admit it would be a challenge to connect face-to-face with someone you’ve never met in person and who lives in a different time zone. Therein lies the problem. The Internet is perfect for teens. Today’s social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter let them represent themselves as whomever, or whatever, they want. Everything is edited by them, chosen specifically to present the face they want the world to see. And if they decide to change that face, then they just delete some pictures, add some new friends, and voila! – new person! Experts say that as many as 10 percent of Internet users may be considered addicted, although some mental health professionals balk at using that term in a clinical sense. They argue that an activity can only be addictive when it causes a certain type of chemical reaction in the brain, and that’s hard to determine. But when you’re arguing with a teen about the amount of time she’s spending online and she just can’t get her paper done because her Instant Messenger keeps alerting her something new and exciting is happening with her best friend, then call it what you like, it’s a problem – for you, the child, and the entire family. Many parents feel torn, though, about limiting their children’s time on the computer. If a teen is struggling socially, some parents believe any human interaction, even through the computer, is preferable to none. And with teens that are risk-takers or have questionable taste in friends, some parents feel they can better monitor and keep their children safe by letting them stay home, downloading music files and creating quizzes for their Web pages. And many parents just want to avoid the tantrums, the cold shoulder, or the arguments that flare whenever the issue of computer time management comes up. Background of the Study Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support email. Online game, a game played over some form of  computer network. This almost always means the  Internet  or equivalent technology, but games have always used whatever technology was current:  modems  before the Internet, and hard wiredterminals  before modems. The expansion of online gaming has reflected the overall expansion of computer networks from small local networks to the Internet and the growth of Internet access itself. Online games can range from simple text based games to games incorporating complex graphics and virtual worlds populated by many players simultaneously. Many online games have associated  online communities, making online games a form of social activity beyond single player games. The rising popularity of  Flash  and  Java  led to an Internet revolution where websites could utilize streaming video, audio, and a whole new set of user interactivity. When Microsoft began packaging  Flash  as a pre-installed component of  IE, the Internet began to shift from a data/information spectrum to also offer on-demand entertainment. This revolution paved the way for sites to offer games to web surfers. Some online multiplayer games like  World of Warcraft,  Final Fantasy XI  and  Lineage II  charge a monthly fee to subscribe to their services, while games such as  Guild Wars  offer an alternative no monthly fee scheme. Many other sites relied on advertising revenues from on-site sponsors, while others, like  RuneScape, or  Tibia  let people play for free while leaving the players the option of paying, unlocking new content for the members. Addiction, can also be viewed as a continued involvement with a substance or activity despite the negative consequences associated with it. Pleasure, enjoyment or relief from actual or perceived ailments would have originally been sought; however, over a period of time involvement with the substance or activity is needed to feel normal. Some psychology professionals and many laypeople now mean ‘addiction’ to include abnormal psychological dependency on such things as gambling, video games, food, sex, pornography, computers, internet, work, exercise, adrenaline, idolizing, watching TV or certain types of non-pornographic videos, spiritual obsession, self-injury and shopping. The  American Society of Addiction Medicine  begins their definition of addiction by describing it as â€Å"a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Statement of the Problem How to cite The Problem and Its Settings, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Who is the real hero in Beowulf or Grendel Essay Example For Students

Who is the real hero in Beowulf or Grendel Essay Grendel A monster from the depths who consumes humans as a daily diet and strives to find a meaning in life Or Beowulf A warrior raised by a king whose arrogance and courage landed him a throne of his own Points of view in both stories are very distinct. Grendel seemed much more intellectual from his point of view. The author did not portray him as a cold-blooded monster as you would expect. Beowulf’s character was supported by bravery and integrity. The author almost seemed to describe him as a god in his actions. But I think Beowulf is the real hero because in the story he presents himself with rectitude, stays true to his people and his king, and risks his life for others. Throughout this mythical story, Beowulf is depicted as a hero in the battle between good and evil. Over time, it has been a constant struggle between good and evil. In most stories the hero struggles, yet defeats the evil. Beowulf’s image was perfectly composed through the words of the author. â€Å"I never saw in the world a greater earl than one of your band is, a hero in his harness. He is no mere retainer decked out with weapons, unless his face belies him, his excellent front (5). † This passage takes place when the watchman of the Scyldings first sees Beowulf and his men. These are the watchman’s thoughts as Beowulf approaches. He has never seen a man of Beowulf’s size and is overwhelmed by his shiny armor. This is the first time in the story where the author describes Beowulf’s physical features. The author introduces Beowulf’s presence as majestic and noble. Beowulf always places God, the king, and the people before himself. He is a very respectful warrior, who completes his deeds with humility. Beowulf does not expect anything in repayment for his work, he simply does it out of dignity and pride in himself. â€Å"If thou comest away alive, I will reward thee for that onslaught with treasures (25). † Then Beowulf speaks in reply. â€Å"Sorrow not, wise warrior. It is better for each to avenge his friend than greatly to mourn (25). † At this point in the story king Hrothgar mourns the loss of his good friend Aeschere. He proceeds to bribe Beowulf with treasures to find Grendel’s mother and slay her for the viscous act. Beowulf replies by comforting Hrothgar and promising revenge, because avenging a death is better than mourning a death. Beowulf does not risk his life for reward or boasting rights, but out of his own personal dignity. He knows that if he does not succeed in victory then others will fail after him. Beowulf’s arrogance and pride in himself helped him to achieve victory against the worst of evil alone. No whit did his comrades, sons of chieftains, stand about him in a band with valour, but they took to the wood, they hid for their lives (47). † This is when Beowulf senses his weakness as an old man fighting a horrid beast. His men flee from the dragon’s wrath, yet Beowulf still stands his ground. He is willing to die as a king to save his people. At this point Beowulf senses his death, and knows he is no match dragon. But at the end of the story victory favors the hero. Though Beowulf dies he is a legend to his people and will be embraced with honor and respect from future generations.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Fat Essays - Physical Exercise, Self Care, Cognition, Human Behavior

Fat SAMPLE OUTLINE FOR A PERSUASIVE SPEECH - By Tom Wingard Introduction Attention Are you getting a bit tired of that three inch spare tire Material around your waist? Are you becoming increasingly lazy, fat? Thesis/ I'd like to show you that we're all in need of exercise. Overview Now is the time to get started so that we can enjoy the health and psychological benefits the rest of our lives. Motivation I'm assuming that none of you will argue that exercise is harmful. You'll agree that exercise is beneficial. However, I'm not so sure all of us are actually exercising. I'd like to tell you, then, not how to exercise, but to persuade you to go out and get some exercise. Transition (First, I'd like to tell you why I'm so concerned about our inactivity.) Thought Pattern: PROBLEM-SOLUTION Body Problem: I. Lack of exercise is harmful to our health. A. Cardiovascular disease, the nation's leading cause of death, is caused by inactivity. 1. Clogged arteries and veins are a result of inactivity. (example) 2. Excess fat also caused by inactivity leads to a higher incidence of heart disease. (explanation and example) Internal (Statistically, then, you will die at an earlier age if summary you do not exercise.) Transition (Now some of you might be wondering why I'm preaching to a bunch of 20 year olds.) B. College students are not as healthy as we are often lead to believe. 1. High school seniors are in better health than we are. (survey) 2. We are on the threshold of decline as our level of activity drops. (explanation) C. This change is correlated with the changes in our lifestyles that occur between high school and college. 1. Most of us have less time to run around because we are studying more. (explanation) 2. Many of us have given up the sports we used to play competitively. (example) 3. Now that we're in college we have less motivation to exercise. (explanation) Internal (The point here is that exercise for us must come from summary within. But, statistically, that hasn't been happening.) Transition (This point becomes increasingly significant as we realize that this stage in our lives is a primary force in determining our future behavior.) D. Our inactivity now may lead to inactivity later. 1. Our choices in brand of beer will be carried on through the coming years. (analogy) 2. By being inactive now we are getting ourselves into a rut of being inactive. This rut can be avoided, but it is difficult. (explanation) Internal (I have shown you that by not exercising we are decreasing summary our life spans, and at this particular time in our lives we are especially vulnerable to becoming out of shape. This may carry with us for years, until it is too late. Transition (A fair question to ask here is: What is so great about exercise? If it's such a pain in the ass, it's not worth living a few more years. To this I would respond that it isn't such a pain.) Solution II. Exercise is not a large investment,but the yield is very high. We should all exercise to take advantage of this. A. To exercise, you don't have to lift weights for hours on end or join the wrestling team. Exercise can take as little as 15 minutes a day. (statistic) B. One advantage of being healthy is that your body needs less sleep. This may more than make up for the time it takes to exercise. (explanation) C. Studies show exercise clears your thoughts so that you can be more efficient. (testimony) D. Also, you'll feel better. 1. When hurrying to class you won't get winded so easily. (example) 2. You won't get sick as easily since exercise increases the body's resistance. (testimony and explanation) E. More important, however, are the effects on your body you don't feel. 1. Increasing your cardiovascular strength increases your heart's stroke efficiency. (testimony) 2. Researchers at San Diego State have found that increases in exercise slow the onset of senility. (testimony) Internal (If none of these facts impress you, keep in mind that summary/ exercise might make us look better and this might make transition girls take a little more notice of us.) Conclusion Attention Just as none of us wants to be called a fat slob by our material mothers, none of us wants to die earlier than we